House of Aviz

Portuguese dynasty
House of Aviz
Casa de Avis
House of Aviz (transparent).png
Parent housePortuguese House of Burgundy
CountryPortugal
Founded1385
FounderJohn I
Final rulerHenry I or António I (disputed)
Titles
Dissolution1580
Cadet branches

The House of Aviz (Portuguese: Casa de Avis), also known as the Joanine Dynasty (Dinastia Joanina), was a dynasty of Portuguese origin which flourished during the Renaissance and the period of the Portuguese discoveries, when Portugal expanded its power globally.

The house was founded by King John I of Portugal, Grand-Master of the Order of Aviz and illegitimate son of King Pedro I (of the Portuguese House of Burgundy), who ascended to the throne after successfully pressing his claim during the 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum.[1] Aviz monarchs would rule Portugal through the Age of Discovery, establishing Portugal as a global power following the creation of the Portuguese Empire. In 1494 Pope Alexander VI divided the world under the dominion of Portugal and Spain with the Treaty of Tordesillas.

The House of Aviz has produced numerous prominent figures in both European and global history, including Prince Henry the Navigator, King Manuel I of Portugal, and Holy Roman Empress Isabella of Portugal. Numerous Aviz dynasts have also claimed thrones or titles across Europe, including King Peter V of Aragon and John, Prince of Antioch. The Aviz ruled Portugal from 1385 until 1580, when the Philippine Dynasty succeeded to the throne following the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.

History

King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz.

Origins

The founder of the House of Aviz, King John I of Portugal, was born in 1357 as the illegitimate child of King Pedro I of Portugal, a member of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, and Teresa Lourenço, daughter of a Lisbon merchant. In 1364, at 7 years old, John was made Grand Master of the Order of Aviz, henceforth becoming known as John of Aviz.

Rise to the throne

The House of Aviz was established as a result of the dynastic crisis following the 1383 death of Ferdinand I.[2] Ferdinand's widow Leonor Telles was disliked by both the nobility and the commoners for having left her first husband and for having had their marriage annulled in order to marry King Ferdinand. Ferdinand's designated heir was their only surviving child Beatrice, married to John I of Castile who claimed the throne in the name of his wife,[3] but under the Treaty of Salvaterra that had been the basis for John's marriage to Beatrice, the unpopular Leonor was left as Regent until such time as the son of Beatrice and John would be 14 years old.

In April 1385, amidst popular revolt and civil war, the Cortes of Coimbra declared John, Master of Aviz, as king John I of Portugal. He was half-brother of Ferdinand and natural son of Ferdinand's father and predecessor Pedro I. He had the particular backing of the rising bourgeoisie of Lisbon; the nobility were split, with the majority favoring the legitimist Beatrice. Troops under General Nuno Álvares Pereira defeated a small Castilian army at Atoleiros, while John of Castile had to lift a siege to Lisboa, mainly due to a plague that hit his army and killed his wife Beatrice. This was followed, however, by a larger invasion of Castilian and Portuguese troops loyal to John of Castile.

The House of Aviz became Portugal's reigning dynasty following the Battle of Aljubarrota in 1385.

John of Aviz's rule became established fact with the Portuguese victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota[4] on 14 August 1385, where he defeated John I of Castile.[3] A formal peace between Portugal and Castile would not be signed until 1411.

To mark his victory, John founded the Monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória, known as the "Batalha Monastery" ("Battle Monastery"), whose chapel became the burial place of the princes of the new dynasty of Aviz. The descendants of King John I were still also Masters of Aviz, though at times that title passed to one descendant of John and the Crown of Portugal to another. The title of Grand Master of the Order of Aviz was permanently incorporated into the Portuguese Crown toward the end of rule by the House of Aviz, in 1551.[5]

Age of Discoveries

Prince Henry the Navigator, famed leader of the Age of Discoveries and prince of the House of Aviz.

The House of Aviz would rule Portugal until its fall in the 1580 to the Philippine Dynasty.[6] after he had ordered the Duke of Alba to take Portugal by force.[7]

This period of Portuguese history saw the ascent of Portugal to the status of a European and world power. The conquest of Ceuta in 1415 was its first venture in colonial expansion,[8] followed by a great outpouring of national energy and capital investment in the exploration of Africa, Asia and Brazil with the founding of colonies to exploit their resources commercially.[9] The period also includes the zenith of the Portuguese Empire during the reign of Manuel I and the beginning of its decline during John III's reign.[10]

Fall of the Aviz

John III was succeeded in 1557 by his grandson Sebastian I of Portugal, who died, aged 24 and childless, in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir.[11] Sebastian was succeeded by his great-uncle Henry, aged 66, who, as a Catholic Cardinal, also had no children. The Cardinal-King Henry died two years later, and a succession crisis occurred when pretenders to the throne including Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, Philip II of Spain, and António, Prior of Crato claimed the right to inherit it.[12]

António, Prior of Crato, was acclaimed king in several cities around the country in 1580, twenty days before Philip II of Spain invaded Portugal and defeated the supporters of António in the Battle of Alcântara. Although António had been proclaimed king, and was still regarded as rightful king in some of the Azores Islands until 1583,[13] his legitimacy as a monarch is still disputed by historians. Only a small minority of historians (even in Portugal) accept the period of twenty days between Anthony's acclamation and the Battle of Alcântara as his reign. In Portugal he generally considered not as a national king, but as a patriot who led armed resistance to the Philippine domination.

Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, writing in 1956 and counting António as a king, dates the end of the dynasty's rule of Portugal as occurring in 1581–1582. The Cortes of Tomar had acclaimed Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1581, subsequently António's forces were utterly defeated at sea by Álvaro de Bazán at the Battle of Ponta Delgada off São Miguel Island in the Azores, on 26 July 1582. António then retreated to Terceira, where he supervised the raising of levies for defense, but in November he left Angra do Heroísmo en route to France[14] to persuade the French to furnish more troops,[15] 800 of which arrived in June 1583.[16] Philip had despatched Santa Cruz with an overwhelming force which left Lisbon on 23 June,[17] and reaching sight of São Miguel some time after 7 July,[18] finally reduced the Azores to subjection.[19]

The Cortes in Tomar acknowledged Philip II of Spain as King Philip I of Portugal on 16 April 1581 after this Spanish military intervention.[20] From 1581, the House of Aviz had ceased to rule any portion of continental Portugal; António, Prior of Crato held out in the Azores into 1582 as António I of Portugal; the last of his allies in the islands finally surrendered in 1583.[15]

The House of Aviz was succeeded in Portugal by Philip's personal union of the Crowns of Portugal and Spain.[21] In Portuguese history this is variously referred to as the Philippine Dynasty,[22] the House of Habsburg, or the House of Austria. Portugal and Spain would share a common monarch until 1640, upon the proclamation of the Duke of Braganza as John IV of Portugal.[23]

Aviz monarchs

Peter V of Aragon, king in opposition to Joan II.
Monarchs of Portugal
Name Reign Notes
John I of Portugal 1385–1433 Founder of the House of Aviz
Duarte I of Portugal 1433–1438 Oldest member of the Illustrious Generation
Afonso V of Portugal 1438–1481
John II of Portugal 1481–1495
Manuel I of Portugal 1495–1521 Formerly Duke of Beja
John III of Portugal 1521–1557
Sebastian I of Portugal 1557–1578 Death at Battle of Alcácer Quibir triggers Portuguese succession crisis of 1580
Henry I of Portugal 1578–1580 Last Aviz monarch recognized by the Portuguese Cortes
António I of Portugal 1580 Disputed reign in opposition to King Philip I of Portugal in the War of the Portuguese Succession
Monarchs of Aragon
Name Reign Notes
Peter V of Aragon 1463–1466 Disputed reign in opposition to King John II of Aragon in the Catalan Civil War

Symbols

Cross of Aviz

Following his success in succeeding to the throne following the 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum, King John I of Portugal took the Cross of the Order of Aviz as his heraldic badge, adding it to the coat of arms of Portugal and the according royal flags. King John I enforced the imagery of his position as Grand-Master of the Order of Aviz, lending its name to his newly founded royal house and its cross as his personal charge on the royal arms. This was effected in various ways: by insertion within the bordure, alternating with the castles; more commonly inserted within the shield, and occasionally shown outside the shield with the latter laying over it. The Cross of Aviz is a cross flory vert (a green cross with a fleur-de-lys at the end of each arm)

Armillary sphere

The armillary sphere has been an important element of Portuguese heraldry since the reign of King Manuel I of Portugal. The armillary sphere became a royal badge for the Portuguese monarchy, apart from being part of the personal standard of King Manuel I. It acts as a supporter to the Coat of arms of Portugal, also present on the current Flag of Portugal.

Owing to the association with King Manuel I and other Aviz monarchs with the Portuguese discoveries, the armillary sphere was commonly used as a symbol representing Portuguese sovereignty across the Portuguese Empire. The symbol was a consistent motif in both Manueline and Neo-Manueline architecture. It also became particularly associated with Colonial Brazil and the subsequent United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves.

An important element of Portuguese heraldry since the 15th century, the armillary sphere was many times used in Portuguese naval and colonial flags, mainly in Brazil. It was a navigation instrument used to calculate distances and represents the importance of Portugal during the Age of Discovery, as well as the vastness of its colonial empire when the First Republic was implemented.

Coats of arms

Coat of arms Title Tenure Coat of arms Title Tenure Coat of arms Title Tenure
Brasao de Aviz2.png
1385–1580
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of the Algarve.svg
1385–1580
Royal arms of Aragon (Crowned).svg
1463–1466
Coat of Arms of John of Portugal, Prince of Antioch (Order of the Golden Fleece).svg
1456-1457
Armas infante dom henrique.png
1394-1577
Armas duques beja.png
1433-1555

Notable members of the House of Aviz

Family tree of the House of Aviz

This section is an excerpt from Family tree of Portuguese monarchs § Second Dynasty: Houses of Aviz.[edit]
Second Dynasty: Houses of Aviz
Peter I
King of Portugal
1320–1367
Teresa Lourenço
b.1330
Ferdinand I
King of Portugal
1345–1383
r.1367–1383
Philippa
of Lancaster
1360–1415
John I
King of Portugal
1357–1433
r.1385–1433
Inês Peres
c. 1350 – c. 1400
Ferdinand I
King of Aragon
1380–1416
Beatrice
Countess of Arundel
c. 1386–1439
Afonso
1st Duke of Braganza
1377–1461
Eleanor
of Aragon
1402–1445
Edward
King of Portugal
1391–1438
r.1433–1438
Isabella
Duchess of Burgundy
1397–1471
Henry
Duke of Viseu
1394–1460
Peter
Duke of Coimbra
1392–1449
Isabella
of Urgell
1409–1459
Ferdinand
The Holy
Prince
1402–1443
John
Constable of Portugal
1400–1442
Isabel
of Barcelos
1402–1466
Fernando I
2nd Duke of Braganza
1403–1478
John II
King of Aragon
1398–1479
Maria
of Aragon
1396–1445
John II
King of Castile
1405–1454
Isabella
1428–1496
Eleanor
1434–1467
Frederick III
Holy Roman Emperor
1415–1493
Catherine
1436–1463
Henry IV
King of Castile
1425–1474
Joan
1439–1475
Ferdinand
Duke of Viseu
1433–1470
Beatrice
Duchess of Viseu
1430–1506
Maximilian I
Holy Roman Emperor
1459–1519
Mary
of Burgundy
1457–1482
Ferdinand II
of Aragon
King of Castile
1452–1516
Isabella I
Queen of Castile
1451–1504
Isabella
of Coimbra
1432–1455
Afonso V
King of Portugal
1432–1481
r.1438–1477, 1477–1481
Joanna
la Beltraneja
1462–1530
Joanna
1452–1490
John II
King of Portugal
1455–1495
r. 1477, 1481–1495
Eleanor
of Viseu
1458–1525
Isabella
of Viseu
1459–1521
Fernando II
3rd Duke of Braganza
1430–1483
Philip I
King of Castile
1478–1506
Joanna
Queen of Castile
1479–1555
Catherine
of Aragon
1485–1536
Henry VIII
King of England
1491–1547
Afonso
Prince of Portugal
1475–1491
Isabella
of Aragon
1470–1498
Manuel I
King of Portugal
1469–1521
r.1495–1521
Maria
of Aragon
Queen of Portugal
1482–1517
Jaime
4th Duke of Braganza
1479–1532
Ferdinand I
Holy Roman Emperor
1503–1564
Catherine
Queen of Portugal
1507–1578
John III
King of Portugal
1502–1557
r.1521–1557
Charles V(I)
King of Spain
1500–1558
Isabella
1503–1539
Beatrice
Duchess of Savoy
1504–1538
Charles III
Duke of Savoy
1486–1553
Henry
King of Portugal
1512–1580
r.1578–1580
Edward
Duke of Guimarães
1515–1540
Isabella
of Braganza
1514–1576
Third Dynasty
House of Habsburg
Afonso
1509–1540
Louis
Duke of Beja
1506 —1555
Ferdinand
Duke of Guarda
1507–1534
Guiomar
Coutinho
of Marialva
>d.1534
João
Manuel
1537–1554
Joanna
of Austria
1535–1573
Maria Manuela
1527–1545
Philip I(II)
King of Portugal
1527–1598
r.1581–1598
Teodósio I
5th Duke of Braganza
1510–1563
Sebastian
King of Portugal
1554–1578
r.1557–1578
António
Prior of Crato
King of Portugal
1531–1595
r.1580–
1582
Catarina
Duchess of Braganza
1540–1614
João I
6th Duke of Braganza
1543–1583
Ana
de Velasco
y Girón
1585–1607
Teodósio II
7th Duke of Braganza
1568–1630
Fourth Dynasty
House of Braganza
John IV
King of Portugal
1604–1656
r.1640–1656

See also

References

  1. ^ António Henrique R. de Oliveira Marques (1972). History of Portugal: From Lusitania to Empire ; vol. 2, From Empire to Corporate State. Columbia University Press. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-0-231-03159-2. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  2. ^ Christopher Allmand; Rosamond McKitterick (18 June 1998). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 7, C.1415-c.1500. Cambridge University Press. p. 629. ISBN 978-0-521-38296-0. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  3. ^ a b Guida Myrl Jackson-Laufer (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-57607-091-8. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  4. ^ Clifford J. Rogers; Kelly DeVries; Jobyhn France (1 November 2010). Journal of Medieval Military History. Boydell & Brewer. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-84383-596-7. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  5. ^ António Henrique R. de Oliveira Marques (1984). História de Portugal, desde os tempos mais antigos até à presidência do Sr. General Eanes: Do Renascimento às revoluções liberais. Palas Editores. p. 110. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  6. ^ Fernand Braudel (1982). Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century, Vol. III: The Perspective of the World. University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-520-08116-1. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  7. ^ David Hilliam (2005). Philip II: King Of Spain and Leader of the Counter-Reformation. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-4042-0317-4. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  8. ^ Julia Ortiz Griffin; William D. Griffin (1 January 2007). Spain and Portugal: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. Infobase Publishing. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-8160-7476-1. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  9. ^ Douglas L. Wheeler; Walter C. Opello (10 May 2010). Historical Dictionary of Portugal. Scarecrow Press. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-0-8108-7075-8. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  10. ^ Fernão Mendes Pinto (January 1989). Mendes Pinto/Catz: Travels of Mendes Pinto. University of Chicago Press. p. xxii. ISBN 978-0-226-66951-9. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  11. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (23 December 2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 534. ISBN 978-1-85109-672-5. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  12. ^ John Lynch (1964). Spain Under the Habsburgs: Empire and absolutism, 1516-1598. Oxford University Press. p. 307. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  13. ^ Archivo dos Açores. University of Michigan. 1887. p. 491. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  14. ^ David B. Quinn (1979). England and the Azores, 1581-1582: Three Letters. UC Biblioteca Geral 1. p. 213. GGKEY:X1C130EKZX6. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  15. ^ a b Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão (1956). O reinado de D. Antonio prior do Crato. Coimbra. p. 477. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  16. ^ Colin Martin; Geoffrey Parker (January 1999). The Spanish Armada: Revised Edition. Manchester University Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-901341-14-0. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  17. ^ João Pedro Vaz (2005). Campanhas do prior do Crato, 1580-1589: entre reis e corsários pelo trono de Portugal. Tribuna da História. p. 74. ISBN 978-972-8799-27-4. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  18. ^ Rafael Valladares (28 February 2012). A Conquista de Lisboa. Leya. ISBN 978-972-47-4348-6. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  19. ^ Thomas Henry Dyer; Arthur Hassall (1901). 1525-1585. G. Bell and sons. p. 475. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  20. ^ Fernando Cabo Aseguinolaza; Anxo Abuín González; César Domínguez (2010). A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 595. ISBN 978-90-272-3457-5. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  21. ^ Kevin Joseph Sheehan (2008). Iberian Asia: The Strategies of Spanish and Portuguese Empire Building, 1540--1700. ProQuest. pp. 126–129. ISBN 978-1-109-09710-8. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  22. ^ António da Silva Rego (1965). Portuguese Colonization in the Sixteenth Century: A Study of the Royal Ordinances (Regimentos). Witwatersrand University Press. p. 3. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  23. ^ C.R. Boxer (1 July 1973). The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825. Penguin. p. 112. Retrieved 25 June 2013.

External links

House of Aviz
Cadet branch of the Portuguese House of Burgundy
Preceded by Ruling House of the Kingdom of Portugal
1385 – 1580
Succeeded by
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Itself
as the reigning house
— TITULAR —
Claimant House of the
Portuguese monarchy

1580-1638
Reason for succession failure:
War of the Portuguese Succession
Succeeded by
Claim extinct
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House of Aviz
João I (1385–1433)
Spouse(s)
Children
House of Aviz (transparent).png
Duarte I (1433–1438)
Spouse(s)
Children
Afonso V (1438–1481)
Spouse(s)
Children
João II (1481–1495)
Spouse(s)
Children
Manuel I (1495–1521)
Spouse(s)
Children
João III (1521–1557)
Spouse(s)
Children
Sebastião I (1557–1578)
Henrique I (1578–1580)
Notes
The House of Aviz is a cadet branch of the House of Burgundy and was succeeded by the House of Habsburg
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